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14. Lunar and Solar Codes

Updated: Jun 7, 2023

"Watkins compared the straight tracks leading to the Greek cities with the leys of Britain and found in both cases an association with Hermes, known to the Egyptians as Thoth, to the Gauls as Theutates, the name surviving in the numerous Tot or Toot hills all over England. Hermits, he believed, owed their name to their former situation as servants of Hermes, and it does appear that at one time, they acted as guides to pilgrims and travellers across the mountains and wild places.

All over the world, the ghost of the former mercurial deity hovers above the old paths and standing stones. "

Sir Montague Sharpe, in Middlesex in British, Roman and Saxon Times, 1919, quoted in London's Ley Lines, Pathways of Enlightenment, by Christopher Street.

Thoth. Theutates. Mercury. Hermes. Hermetic. Hermit. Hermitage ... and Michael.

Sharpe shows in his book, now exactly one hundred years old, that so called mark stones or boundary stones are in fact part of ancient shrines, which the Romans called compita. He shows on one particular map that out of fifty six sites in Middlesex, forty seven of the 'mother churches of ancient parishes' are 'situated on the quinterial lines by the Roman surveyor's landmarks and the inference prima facae is, that such churches occupy the sites of compita or other sacred places existing in Romano British Times.'

(Sir Montague Sharpe, in Middlesex in British, Roman and Saxon Times, 1919)

The full text of the above quoted book is available online here:

I have found Michael and Mary connections to several places where soli-lunar cycle figures are present in the layout, or where very specific sunrises occur, on certain days of the year.

So how can lunar and solar codes be built into the way humans shape the landscape? And what's it got to do with Michael and Mary?

If you count the number of days in a cycle, say a lunar month, a year, twelve lunar months, etc, and take those numbers you can of course place markers on the landscape at those numbers of feet / miles / metres / megalithic yards / astronomic megalithic yards apart. You can of course build structures with units of measurement according to these numbers. This may not serve any purpose other than aesthetic: it's pleasing to the mind's eye. However, to a religious mind, such a scheme might seem pleasing to a god or the gods, so there is potentially a religious or spiritual aspect to this. There is of course a certain circularity to placing sites the number of units away as there are days in one cycle or another, as a day is in the first place a division of a solar and earthly cycle. Added to that is the circularity of using units of measurement that are geodectic, derived from the earth's dimensions, say a 40,000th part of the earth's meridional circumference. Perhaps these two circularities, in using units of time and space that are already significant subdivisions of the cycles and size of the earth, are also pleasing to the eyes of the landscape designers.

Numbers that might come up in this way could be 24, the number of hours in a day; 36, the number of hours in a day and a half; 7 and 4, as 4 weeks of 7 days each more or less make up one lunar month, it is, at least, the best way to divide 29.53059 into neat periods of time; 365.242199, the number of days in a year; 29.53059, the number of days in a lunation; 354.36708, 12 such lunations; 383.89767, 13 lunations; 10.875119, the difference in days between a year and 12 lunations; 2.715427,the number of days in a lunation divided by 10.875119; 346.62, the number of days in an eclipse year, or draconic year; 27.32166, the number of days in a sidereal month (as well as a couple of other types of lunar month, very close in number, tropical, anomalisitic and draconic); 235 and 19, the number of lunations in 19 years, which is a metonic cycle. Then there are other much longer cycles, such as precession, the constant changing of the orientation of the rotational axis of our planet which moves in a circle, and which lasts about 26,000 years and subdivisions of this cycle produce numbers that are often found either in architecture or in myths, such as 54, 72, 360.

Another thing you could do would be to place markers apart in such a way that they reflect the angle of a certain star, the sun or the moon as it rises on a certain day of the year. This too presupposes the circularity of an earthly cycle, but instead of on the earth's own axis, as is the case with a day, it's its path round the sun, or a year which is used. The unit of measurement used here is irrelevant, the number of the angle measured isn't the issue. It must visually match the angle of a certain astronomical event, and it doesn't mater whether you divide a circle into 360 parts or 366 parts or 459 parts. This could be the heliacal rising of Sirius, or sunrise at a certain time such as solstice or equinox, or a feast day, or a day when light and darkness are in a certain ratio, such as Phi.

That said, there is also the possibility of placing sites apart in such a way as to produce angles of 60, 72, 90, or 180 / Phi degrees.

So what cases of lunar and solar cycle numbers are known to have been used in the outlay of landscape features?

Robin Heath's Lunation Triangle

In his book The Lost Science of Measuring the Earth (co-written with John Michell), Robin Heath shows that several aspects of Stonehenge reflects a link between the year and the lunar cycle.

"There are between 12 and 13 new moons in a solar year, the true figure being 12.368 lunations. The station stone rectangle, whose four corners are placed on the perimeter of the Aubrey circle, frames the sarsen circle, and its sides form an accurate 5:12 ratio. The diagonal of this rectangle is therefore 13 of the same units, completing a 5:12:13 Pythagorean triangle. The diagonal length is the same as the diameter of the Aubrey circle.

These units each tuned out to be eight of Thom's megalithic yards, or 8 x 2.72 feet, thus; The 13 side = the diameter of the Aubrey circle (104MY) = 282.88 feet, the 12 side (96MY) = 261.12 feet, and the 5 side (40 MY) = 108.8 feet. "

A 5:12 ratio is significant because the diagonal of such a rectangle must then be 13. A solar year has either 12 or 13 lunar months, and an average number of 12.368 lunar months. A diagonal of 12.368 would require a rectangle with a ratio between sides of 12:2.995. Robin Heath points this out: a rectangle with sides of 12 and 3 (as opposed to 12 and 5) would have very close to the correct diagonal to reflect the average number of lunations in a solar year. Heath says this is arrived at by dividing the shorter side of the rectangle by 3 / 5. Indeed the required 2.995 for a correct diagonal of 12.368 is almost 3. A rectangle with sides of 3 and 12 would produce a diagonal of 12.369.

The numbers 3 and 2.995 are also very close to 3.0902, or 5 / Phi. I have found myself that Phi is key to many places such as Stonehenge, and it's interesting that the diagonal of a rectangle with sides of 12 and 3.0902 would also produce a diagonal very close to the average number of lunations in a solar year - in this case, it would measure 12.3915. Having said that, dividing the shorter side of a 12:5 rectangle by Phi dos not improve on dividing it by 3 / 5, in term of the value of the diagonal matching the average number of lunations per year.

You can see the station stone rectangle in red on the diagram below.

You can also see on this diagram that there is another way in which solar and lunar cycles are merged at Stonehenge: the orientation of the station stone rectangle combines the angle of the winter solstice sunset and summer solstice sunrise with the southernmost moonrise. Only at the latitude of Stonehenge do these two lines form a right angle: and so a rectangle can be drawn on the ground accordingly.

So at Stonehenge, both the dimensions of the rectangle, irrespective of units used, but based purely on its ratio of 5:12, and then a further division of its 5 side to make a side of 3, and the orientation of the four sides of the rectangle seem designed to reflect the solar year and the lunar year into account.

On the ground, if the 12 side is 261.12 feet long, then the 12.368 side is almost exactly 8 feet longer (8.00768 feet longer) .

Robin Heath also points this out: the Sarsen circle is, in diameter almost exactly 7 / 19 of the Aubrey circle, and this is fraction is significant. Robin Heath calls it the silver fraction.

What's more, he shows that there are 56 Aubrey holes in a circle at Stonehenge, and 56 markers is the precise number needed to predict solar and lunar eclipses, 28 being the minimum. So again, Stonehenge shows the combination of solar and lunar calendars.

And of course, Robin Heath is famous for his Lunation Triangle: the rectangle formed by the station stones can by halved to make a right angled triangle, and this can be blown up 2,500 times, and arranged so as the bottom right corner touches Stonehenge. Then the triangle is turned anti-clockwise so that the 12 side follows a line of latitude, lying on an east-west axis. What happens to the other two corners? They touch the island of Lundy (or at least the coast just off it) , and the Preseli Hills in Wales, where the bluestones at Stonehenge were quarried from. The '5' side of the triangle, between Lundy and Preseli, goes through another island called Caldey. One of the most impressive things about this triangle is its dimensions: the '12' side measures 24 x 36 / 7 miles, exactly.


At Giza, the layout of the pyramids reflects certain lunar a solar cycle numbers, in metres. I found this by chance, whilst looking at a plan of the site on I don't know whether or not anyone else has noticed. I was really only looking at Phi ratios on the site, and there are many. I got a few from the above website, and found a few more too. (See my post on Phi).

I made my own site plan to show these numbers clearly.

Here is the site plan with Flinders Petrie's figures in metres: the most accurate measurements I could get hold of. Another more recent plan, by Glen Dash, was problematic in that everything was measured from the starting point of the centre of the Great Pyramid, using metres to only one decimal point, so errors accumulated around the third pyramid, whereas Flinders Petrie uses inches to one decimal point, and many viewpoints, which is much much more accurate. Flinders Petrie also takes into account the deviation from true north of the site, whereas the Glen Dash plan seems to assume that the site is perfectly oriented to the north. So I made a plan of the Giza pyramid complex using Flinders Petrie's figures converted to metres, so as to show up the luni-solar figures.

The Giza complex, according to Glen Dash figures.

The Giza complex, according to Flinders Petrie figures, converted from feet to metres.

A simplified version of the Giza complex with Flinders Petrie's figures, and an emphasis on Phi, or close to Phi ratios

So where are the soli-lunar cycle figures? The short side of the red square measures 240 metres, which is the number of hours in a day. There are 354.37608 days in twelve lunar months. This is very close to the value in metres of the short side of the blue rectangle. And, finally, there are 346.62 days in a draconic or eclipse year, and this is close to the value in metres of the short side of the yellow rectangle. Each of these values forms the short side of a rectangle, which, multiplied by a number close to Phi, then gives the longer side of the rectangle. The length of the site, the distance between the northern part of the Great Pyramid and the southern part of the third pyramid, is itself a product of the number of days in an eclipse year times the square of Phi. Each of the rectangles just mentioned, the red, blue and yellow, are enough together to define the entire positioning of the three pyramids in relation to each other, as well as their relative sizes. This is true because the red and blue rectangles measure the distance between pyramid centres, and the yellow measures the distance between pyramid bases, so that together, the three rectangles define relative position and size.

Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock have shown that the size of the Great Pyramid is already a reflection of the size of the earth and the precessional cycle.


In London, the layout of some of the churches shows the Phi day sunrise and sunset angles, as well as Michaelmas sunrise angles were used. I had for a while though this to be Christopher Wren's invention. He was the man given the task of rebuilding London after the great fire of 1666. But it turns out that the churches on the plan below were all medieval in origin, rebuilt in their original locations. I focused just on Michael and Mary churches here, believing them to be in some way connected to very old cults of a male and female principle.

The meridian circumference is estimated to be 40,007.863 km or 24,859.734 miles.

The distance from the North Pole to St Paul's Cathedral is 2,667.29 miles.

This is 4 miles short of being at 3/7ths of the distance between equator and North Pole.

(24,859.734 / 4 ) x 3 / 7 = 2,663.5429

Michaelmas sunrise has an azimuth of 92.66° (2019 value) at the latitude of St Paul's (or 93.01° 2025 value), and sunset is 267.03°. The sunrise line drawn from St Paul's goes through the church of St Mary-le-Bow, the site of St Mildred, Poultry, a church now demolished, the Royal Exchange, St Michael Cornhill and St Peter-Upon-Cornhill.

The Michaelmas sunset line goes through St Anne's church, Soho, St Clement Danes, Temple Church, and St Brides Church.

St Pauls' to St Anne's 7,755 feet dome to dome.

St Paul's south side to St Michael Cornhill 92.20 degres 2892 feet or 0.55 miles or 882 metres.

St Paul's middle of the front entrance to St Michael cornhill 93.08 degrees 996.4 metres, or 1 km, 3269 feet, 0.62 miles

From the centre of the dome of temple Church, along a Michaelmas path of between 92.66° (2019 value) and 93.01° (2025 value) , the line goes through St Thomas Jacobite Church, St Mary Aldermary, near st Antholin Budge Row, St Stephen Walbrook, St Mary Woolnoth church, St Edmund's Church.

Summer Phi Day in London St Paul's is the 1st of May, with the closest match to a Phi day is the 2019 value, with a sunrise azimuth of 64.29° .

Sunset azimuth of 296.03°

A Summer Phi day sunrise line from St Paul's south tower goes to the demolished St Mildred's Poultry.

From St Michael Paternoster to St Michael Cornhill, the summer Phi day sunrise match is exact. 1698 feet

Also St Clements to St Andrew summer Phi day sunrise. 1814 feet 0.55 km 553 m

Also Southwark Cathedral to All Hallows by the tower, 804 m, 2640 feet. and on to the Roman Catholic Church of the English Martyrs.

1st May line from St Michael Queenhithe, line goes to London Mithraeum St Stephen Walbrook, the Royal Exchange, and the now demolished St Bartholomew by the Exchange, St Benet Fink.

From St James Garlickhythe, same line goes St Mary Woolnoth and St Helens Bishopsgate

From St Mary Somerset to St Christopher-le-Stocks, demolished, St Mildred, Poultry, demolished,

Temple Church to th grounds of St Giles Cripplegate.

From St Andrew by the Wardrobe to St Stephen Coleman Street

St Martin Ludgate to Sst Mary Moorfield 4072 feet1240 metres

Buckingham Palace to to St Paul's 2 miles and 64.29 degrees summer phi

Buckingham Palace to Westminster cathedral 2,000 feet 166.32

Winter Phi London City is 9th November, with 09:10:26 (2020 value), sunrise 116.86° and sunset 242.95° . or 2024 value 09:10:20 116.87° 242.94° or 09:09:26 for 10/11/2027 with 117.01° and 242.81° - so 116.9 for the average?

St Michael Queentithe (dem), St jicholas Cole Abbey, St Mary Magdalen Old Fish street (dem), St paul's Cathedral, St Sepulcre Without Newgate, St Cyprian's, Clarence Gate, Kensignton Palace, St Peter's Church, Walworth

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